小出兼久の常盤坐から世界を読む

Vol.125   常盤の本棚「Norton Book of Nature Writing」


Norton Book of Nature Writingネイチャーライティング(nature writing)は、伝統的に、自然環境をめぐるノンフィクション文学と定義される。ただし、nature writingという英語が本格的に使用され始めたのは、20世紀初めのアメリカにおいてだと考えられている。一般的に、20世紀以降はnature writingという用語が使用されるようになったが、19世紀以前はnatural historyという用語が使用されていた。ネイチャーライティングを特徴付ける要素として、自然界についての事実や自然、科学的情報に依拠する一方、自然科学系の客観的な自然観察とは異なり、自然環境をめぐる個人的な思索や哲学的思考を含むということが挙げられる。トーマス・ライアン著『この比類なき土地―アメリカン・ネイチャーライティング小史』(村上清敏・訳)によれば、ネイチャーライティングとは次の3つの局面を備えた文学ジャンルということができる。

  1. 博物誌に関する情報 (natural history information)
  2. 自然に対する作者の感応 (personal reaction)
  3. 自然についての哲学的な考察 (philosophical interpretation)

また、ライアンが示すネイチャーライティングのサブ・カテゴリーには、野外ガイドおよび専門的な論文、博物誌のエッセイ、自然逍遥(散策、散歩のこと)、孤独と僻地での生活をテーマとしたエッセイ、旅行と冒険についてのエッセイ、農場の生活に関するエッセイ、そして自然における人間の役割についての文章がある。

●GILBERT WHITE (1720–1793)
From The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne
HECTOR ST. JOHN DE ●CRÈVECOEUR (1735–1813)
From Letters from an American Farmer
From Sketches of Eighteenth century America
●WILLIAM BARTRAM (1739–1823)
From Travels Through North & South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida
●ALEXANDER WILSON (1766–1813)
From American Ornithology; or, The Natural History of the Birds of the United States
JOHN LEONARD ●KNAPP (1767–1845)
From The Journal of a Naturalist
●DAVID THOMPSON (1770–1857)
From David Thompson’s Narrative of His Explorations in ●Western America, 1784–1812
●DOROTHY WORDSWORTH (1771–1855)
From Journals of Dorothy Wordsworth
●MERIWETHER LEWIS (1774–1809)
From The Journals of Lewis and Clark
●CHARLES WATERTON (1782–1865)
From Wanderings in South America, the North-West of the United States, and the Antilles
●JOHN JAMES AUDUBON (1785–1851)
From Ornithological Biography
●JOHN CLARE (1793–1864)
The Natural World
From The Natural History Prose Writings of John Clare
●GEORGE CATLIN (1796–1872)
From Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of the North American Indians . . .
●RALPH WALDO EMERSON (1803–1882)
From Nature
From The Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson
●CHARLES DARWIN (1809–1882)
From Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle
From On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
From The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex
●SUSAN FENIMORE COOPER (1813–1894)
From Rural Hours
●HENRY DAVID THOREAU (1817–1862)
From A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers
From Walden: or, Life in the Woods
Walking From The Maine Woods From Journals
●CHARLES KINGSLEY (1819–1875)
From Glaucus; or, The Wonders of the Shore
●WALT WHITMAN (1819–1892)
From Specimen Days and Collect
●JOHN WESLEY POWELL (1834–1902)
From Exploration of the Colorado River of the West and Its Tributaries
●SAMUEL CLEMENS (1835–1910)
From Life on the Mississippi
●CELIA THAXTER (1835–1894)
From An Island Garden
●JOHN BURROUGHS (1837–1921)
In Mammoth Cave
●JOHN MUIR (1838–1914)
A Wind-Storm in the Forests
The Water-Ouzel
●W. H. HUDSON (1841–1922)
My Friend the Pig
From Idle Days in Patagonia
●CLARENCE KING (1842–1901)
From Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada
●GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS (1844–1889)
From Notebooks and Papers of Gerard Manley Hopkins
●RICHARD JEFFERIES (1848–1887)
Out of Doors in February Absence of Design in Nature
●MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT (1859–1934)
The Story of a Garden
●ERNEST THOMPSON SETON (1860–1946)
From Wild Animals I Have Known
●GENE STRATTON PORTER (1863–1924)
From Moths of the Limberlost
●MARY AUSTIN (1868–1934)
The Land of Little Rain
●LUTHER STANDING BEAR (1868–1939)
Nature
●EDWARD THOMAS (1878–1917)
Hampshire
The End of Summer
●ROCKWELL KENT (1882–1971)
From N by E
●VIRGINIA WOOLF (1882–1941)
The Death of the Moth
●ISAK DINESEN (1885–1962)
From Out of Africa
●D. H. LAWRENCE (1885–1930)
Flowery Tuscany
●E. L. GRANT WATSON (1885–1970)
Unknown Eros
Wave and Cliff
●HENRY BESTON (1888–1968)
From The Outermost House: A Year of Life on the Great Beach of Cape Cod
●ALDO LEOPOLD (1888–1948)
From A Sand County Almanac
●JOSEPH WOOD KRUTCH (1893–1970)
Love in the Desert
●HENRY WILLIAMSON (1895–1977)
From Tarka the Otter
●DONALD CULROSS PEATTIE (1898–1964)
From An Almanac for Moderns
●VLADIMIR NABOKOV (1899–1977)
Butterflies
●SIGURD OLSON (1899–1982)
Northern Lights
●EDWIN WAY TEALE (1899–1980)
The Lost Woods
●E. B. WHITE (1899–1985)
A Slight Sound at Evening
●MERIDEL LESUEUR (1900–1996)
The Ancient People and the Newly Come
●RENÉ DUBOS (1901–1982)
A Family of Landscapes
●NORMAN MACLEAN (1902–1990)
From A River Runs Through It
●JOHN STEINBECK (1902–1968)
From The Log from the Sea of Cortez
●LAURENS VAN DER POST (1906–1996)
From The Heart of the Hunter
●T. H. WHITE (1906–1964)
The Snakes Are About
●RACHEL CARSON (1907–1964)
The Marginal World
●LOREN EISELEY (1907–1977)
The Judgment of the Birds
●RICHARD WRIGHT (1908–1960)
From Black Boy
●ARCHIE CARR (1909–1987)
The Lively Petes of Parque Vargas
●WALLACE STEGNER (1909–1993)
Glen Canyon Submersus
Coda: Wilderness Letter
●JACQUETTA HAWKES (1910–1996)
From A Land
●JOSEPHINE JOHNSON (1910–1990)
From The Inland Island
●LEWIS THOMAS (1913–1993)
Death in the Open
The World’s Biggest Membrane
●JOHN HAY (B. 1915)
The Common Night
The Dovekie and the Ocean Sunfish
●THOMAS MERTON (1915–1968)
Rain and the Rhinoceros
●FAITH MCNULTY (B. 1918)
Mouse
●FARLEY MOWAT (B. 1921)
From Never Cry Wolf
●JOHN HAINES (B. 1924)
Moments and Journeys
●MAXINE KUMIN (B. 1925)
Silver Snaffles
●ANN HAYMOND ZWINGER (B. 1925)
Of Red-Tailed Hawks and Black-Tailed Gnatcatchers
●J. A. BAKER (B. 1926)
Beginnings
●JOHN FOWLES (B. 1926)
From The Tree
●FRANKLIN RUSSELL (B. 1926)
The Island of Auks
●EDWARD ABBEY (1927–1989)
The Serpents of Paradise
The Great American Desert
●PETER MATTHIESSEN (B. 1927)
From The Tree Where Man Was Born
From The Wind Birds
●NOEL PERRIN (B. 1927)
Pig Tales
URSULA K. LE GUIN (B. 1929)
A Very Warm Mountain
●EDWARD O. WILSON (B. 1929)
The Bird of Paradise
●GARY SNYDER (B. 1930)
Ancient Forests of the Far West
●JOHN MCPHEE (B. 1931)
Under the Snow
●EDWARD HOAGLAND (B. 1932)
Hailing the Elusory Mountain Lion
Thoughts on Returning to the City After Five Months on a Mountain Where the Wolves Howled
●WILLIAM KITTREDGE (B. 1932)
Owning It All
●WENDELL BERRY (B. 1934)
An Entrance to the Woods
The Making of a Marginal Farm
●N. SCOTT MOMADAY (B. 1934)
The Way to Rainy Mountain
SUE HUBBELL (B. 1935)
From A Country Year
TIM ROBINSON (B. 1935)
Timescape with Signpost
●CHET RAYMO (B. 1936)
The Silence
●JIM HARRISON (B. 1937)
The Beginner’s Mind
●FREEMAN HOUSE (B. 1937)
In Salmon’s Water
●WILLIAM LEAST HEAT-MOON (B. 1939)
Under Old Nell’s Skirt
Atop the Mound
●BRUCE CHATWIN (1940–1989)
From The Songlines
●MAXINE HONG KINGSTON (B. 1940)
A City Person Encountering Nature
●JOHN HANSON MITCHELL (B. 1940)
From Living at the End of Time
●RICHARD K. NELSON (B. 1941)
The Gifts
●JOSEPH BRUCHAC (B. 1942)
The Circle Is the Way to See
●FRANKLIN BURROUGHS (B. 1942)
Of Moose and a Moose Hunter
●DOUG PEACOCK (B. 1942)
The Big Snow
●ROBERT FINCH (B. 1943)
Death of a Hornet
●LINDA HASSELSTROM (B. 1943)
Nighthawks Fly in Thunderstorms
●TRUDY DITTMAR (B. 1944)
Moose
●ALICE WALKER (B. 1944)
Am I Blue?
●ANNIE DILLARD (B. 1945)
Heaven and Earth in Jest
Living Like Weasels
Total Eclipse
●JAN ZITA GROVER (B. 1945)
Cutover
●BARRY LOPEZ (B. 1945)
From Arctic Dreams
The American Geographies
●SCOTT RUSSELL SANDERS (B. 1945)
Buckeye
●DAVID RAINS WALLACE (B. 1945)
The Human Element
ALISON HAWTHORNE DEMING (B. 1946)
Wolf, Eagle, Bear: An Alaska Notebook
●GRETEL EHRLICH (B. 1946)
Friends, Foes, and Working Animals
●ELLEN MELOY (B. 1946)
The Flora and Fauna of Las Vegas
●EMILY HIESTAND (B. 1947)
Zip-A-Dee-Do-Dah
●LINDA HOGAN (B. 1947)
The Bats
●ROBERT MICHAEL PYLE (B. 1947)
And the Coyotes Will Lift a Leg
●DIANE ACKERMAN (B. 1948)
Why Leaves Turn Color in the Fall
●JOHN DANIEL (B. 1948)
A Word in Favor of Rootlessness
●DAVID QUAMMEN (B. 1948)
Strawberries Under Ice
●LESLIE MARMON SILKO (B. 1948)
Landscape, History, and the Pueblo Imagination
●JAMAICA KINCAID (B. 1949)
Alien Soil
●DAVID JAMES DUNCAN (B. 1952)
Northwest Passage
●RAY GONZALEZ (B. 1952)
The Third Eye of the Lizard
●VICKI HEARNE (1952–2001)
Calling Animals by Name
●GARY PAUL NABHAN (B. 1952)
From The Desert Smells Like Rain: A Naturalist in Papago Indian Country
●DAVID MAS MASUMOTO (B. 1954)
Planting Seeds
●SHARMAN APT RUSSELL (B. 1954)
Gila Wilderness
●EVELYN WHITE (B. 1954)
Black Women and the Wilderness
●BARBARA KINGSOLVER (B. 1955)
High Tide in Tucson
●MICHAEL POLLAN (B. 1955)
Weeds Are Us
●TERRY TEMPEST WILLIAMS (B. 1955)
The Clan of One-Breasted Women
●JANE BROX (B. 1956)
Baldwins
●DAVID ABRAM (B. 1957)
The Ecology of Magic
●RICK BASS (B. 1958)
From The Ninemile Wolves
●BILL MCKIBBEN (B. 1960)
From The End of Nature
●JANISSE RAY (B. 1962)
Built by Fire
Forest Beloved

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